ATMOSPHERE & CLIMATE DYNAMICS GROUP

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY-HAROKOPIO UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS

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Wednesday 23-08-2017 Thursday 24-08-2017
ATHENS 20..29 °C 20..31 °C
THESSALONIKI 18..30 °C 20..27 °C
PATRA 21..28 °C 21..31 °C

Wednesday 23-08-2017 Thursday 24-08-2017
ROME 18..29 °C 20..31 °C
PARIS 17..27 °C 15..25 °C
LONDON 17..23 °C 13..22 °C

 

  • Για την μικροφυσική χρησιμοποιείται το σχήμα Ferrier (Ferrier et al., 2002),
  • Το ισοζύγιο ακτινοβολιών παραμετροποιείται με το σχήμα GFDL,
  • Το σχήμα Betts-Miller-Janjic χρησιμοποιείται για τις διεργασίες των νεφών και βροχόπτωσης (Janjic et al., 2001, Janjic, 2003)
  • Η φυσική του επιφανειακού στρώματος παραμετροποιείται με το σχήμα Monin-Obukhov-Janjic,
  • Για την τυρβώδη κινητική ενέργεια του  πλανητικού οριακού στρώματος χρησιμοποιείται το σχήμα Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (Mellor and Yamada, 1982, Janjic, 1996) και
  • Υπομοντέλο εδάφους είναι το ενοποιημένο NOAH (Chen and Dudhia 2001).

As with previous releases, Joomla! provides a unified and easy-to-use framework for delivering content for Web sites of all kinds. To support the changing nature of the Internet and emerging Web technologies, Joomla! required substantial restructuring of its core functionality and we also used this effort to simplify many challenges within the current user interface. Joomla! 1.5 has many new features.

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nowcast

Current weather conditions over Europe and Eastern Mediterranean are available in the form of thematic maps of the mean sea level pressure, temperature, wind and precipitation.The maps are produced  by the assimilation of various types of surface and upper air observations (METAR, SYNOP, RAOBS) and satellite retrievals for the precipitation estimation. The nowcasts have hourly updated rate.

prec-mslp.d01.000.300x300 prec-mslp-wind.d02.hires.zoom.000.300x300

The limited area WRF-ARW-CHEM v3.6 meteorology-chemistry model has been installed and configured at the parallel computational infrastructure of the Geography Department  of Harokopio University of Athens (HUA) since July 2014. The GOCART (Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model, Chin et al., JGR, 2000) aerosol module that is used has a sectional scheme for dust, providing forecast for five particle-size bins: 0.5, 1.4, 2.4, 4.5, 8.0 μm effective radius. The model produces  a 72-hour (3 days) dust forecasts (near surface dust concentration, total dust load and dust dry deposition) covering the North Africa, Europe, Middle East and the Saudi Arabia peninsula. The operational domain is consisted of 400x212 grid points, on a 25x25 km grid distance, with 38 vertical levels up to 25 hPa. The dust sources are primarily derived from the clay and sand fraction databases.
CLAYFRACSANDFRAC

The GOCART aerosol module has also a sectional scheme for sea salt, providing forecast for four particle-size bins: 0.3, 1.0, 3.2, 7.5 μm effective radius, concerning the the entire dust operational domain. The calculation of  the sea salt flux is based on the original formula by Monahan et. al (1986) which expresses the rate of seawater droplet generation per unit area of sea surface, per increment of particle radius and it reasonably predicts total sea-salt aerosol mass concentrations and their wind dependence (Gong, 2003) for sea-salt aerosols larger than 0.2 μm radius. The new version is better to represent emission of sub-micron sea salt particles and reduces the sea-salt number flux density below 0.2 μm radius. It also maintains the basic form of the original Monahan equation but adds a size-dependent exponential term for radius.

 

Chin, M., R. B. Rood, S.-J. Lin, J.-F. Müller, and A. M. Thompson (2000), Atmospheric sulfur cycle simulated in the global model GOCART: Model description and global properties, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D20), 24671–24687, doi:10.1029/2000JD900384.
Gong, S. L., A parameterization of sea-salt aerosol source function for sub- and super-micron particles, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17(4), 1097, doi:10.1029/2003GB002079, 2003.

seasonal forecast

Seasonal prediction’s significance lies on its ability to provide early warnings about oncoming and extreme weather episodes.The provided charts depict a qualitative representation of the atmospheric conditions that are likely to prevail over Europe for the summer 2017 and winter 2018 based on simulations with initial conditions on February 2017. The charts are based on the processed outputs of the ensemble members, a few of them are freely available here.

Out of the box, Joomla! does a great job of managing the content needed to make your Web site sing. But for many people, the true power of Joomla! lies in the application framework that makes it possible for developers all around the world to create powerful add-ons that are called Extensions. An Extension is used to add capabilities to Joomla! that do not exist in the base core code. Here are just some examples of the hundreds of available Extensions:

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You can find more examples over at our ever growing Joomla! Extensions Directory. Prepare to be amazed at the amount of exciting work produced by our active developer community!

A useful guide to the Extension site can be found at:
http://extensions.joomla.org/content/view/15/63/

Types of Extensions

There are five types of extensions:

  • Components
  • Modules
  • Templates
  • Plugins
  • Languages

You can read more about the specifics of these using the links in the Article Index - a Table of Contents (yet another useful feature of Joomla!) - at the top right or by clicking on the Next link below.


Component - Joomla! Extension Directory Components

A Component is the largest and most complex of the Extension types. Components are like mini-applications that render the main body of the page. An analogy that might make the relationship easier to understand would be that Joomla! is a book and all the Components are chapters in the book. The core Article Component (com_content), for example, is the mini-application that handles all core Article rendering just as the core registration Component (com_user) is the mini-application that handles User registration.

Many of Joomla!'s core features are provided by the use of default Components such as:

  • Contacts
  • Front Page
  • News Feeds
  • Banners
  • Mass Mail
  • Polls

A Component will manage data, set displays, provide functions, and in general can perform any operation that does not fall under the general functions of the core code.

Components work hand in hand with Modules and Plugins to provide a rich variety of content display and functionality aside from the standard Article and content display. They make it possible to completely transform Joomla! and greatly expand its capabilities.


Module - Joomla! Extension Directory Modules

A more lightweight and flexible Extension used for page rendering is a Module. Modules are used for small bits of the page that are generally less complex and able to be seen across different Components. To continue in our book analogy, a Module can be looked at as a footnote or header block, or perhaps an image/caption block that can be rendered on a particular page. Obviously you can have a footnote on any page but not all pages will have them. Footnotes also might appear regardless of which chapter you are reading. Simlarly Modules can be rendered regardless of which Component you have loaded.

Modules are like little mini-applets that can be placed anywhere on your site. They work in conjunction with Components in some cases and in others are complete stand alone snippets of code used to display some data from the database such as Articles (Newsflash) Modules are usually used to output data but they can also be interactive form items to input data for example the Login Module or Polls.

Modules can be assigned to Module positions which are defined in your Template and in the back-end using the Module Manager and editing the Module Position settings. For example, "left" and "right" are common for a 3 column layout.

Displaying Modules

Each Module is assigned to a Module position on your site. If you wish it to display in two different locations you must copy the Module and assign the copy to display at the new location. You can also set which Menu Items (and thus pages) a Module will display on, you can select all Menu Items or you can pick and choose by holding down the control key and selecting multiple locations one by one in the Modules [Edit] screen

Note: Your Main Menu is a Module! When you create a new Menu in the Menu Manager you are actually copying the Main Menu Module (mod_mainmenu) code and giving it the name of your new Menu. When you copy a Module you do not copy all of its parameters, you simply allow Joomla! to use the same code with two separate settings.

Newsflash Example

Newsflash is a Module which will display Articles from your site in an assignable Module position. It can be used and configured to display one Category, all Categories, or to randomly choose Articles to highlight to Users. It will display as much of an Article as you set, and will show a Read more... link to take the User to the full Article.

The Newsflash Component is particularly useful for things like Site News or to show the latest Article added to your Web site.


Plugin - Joomla! Extension Directory Plugins

One of the more advanced Extensions for Joomla! is the Plugin. In previous versions of Joomla! Plugins were known as Mambots. Aside from changing their name their functionality has been expanded. A Plugin is a section of code that runs when a pre-defined event happens within Joomla!. Editors are Plugins, for example, that execute when the Joomla! event onGetEditorArea occurs. Using a Plugin allows a developer to change the way their code behaves depending upon which Plugins are installed to react to an event.


Language - Joomla! Extensions Directory Languages

New to Joomla! 1.5 and perhaps the most basic and critical Extension is a Language. Joomla! is released with multiple Installation Languages but the base Site and Administrator are packaged in just the one Language en-GB - being English with GB spelling for example. To include all the translations currently available would bloat the core package and make it unmanageable for uploading purposes. The Language files enable all the User interfaces both Front-end and Back-end to be presented in the local preferred language. Note these packs do not have any impact on the actual content such as Articles.

More information on languages is available from the
http://community.joomla.org/translations.html

seasonal forecast

Seasonal prediction’s significance lies on its ability to provide early warnings about oncoming and extreme weather episodes.The provided charts depict a qualitative representation of the atmospheric conditions that are likely to prevail over Europe for the winter 2014-2015. The charts are based on the processed outputs of the ensemble members, a few of them are freely available here.

seasonal-dec2014

January 2015 

 

February 2015

 

Methodology: Seasonal prediction’s significance lies on its ability to provide early warnings about oncoming and extreme weather episodes. The ACDG/HUA seasonal forecasts are obtained from annual ensemble simulations based on the WRF-ARW v3.5 model covering the entire globe. The ensemble simulations performed over a global domain of 720x360 grid points, on 0.5°x0.5° horizontal resolution, with time step of 10min and 32 vertical levels. The simulations were based on a modified version of the lagged average forecast (LAF) formulation introduced by Hoffman and Kalnay (1983). In a short range forecast the LAF method consists of ensemble members that include the latest operational forecast, and also forecasts for the same verification time started a few days earlier than the latest one. Thus each member includes the governing dynamics and it can be considered as a perturbation about the ensemble mean (Katsafados et al., 2014). In accordance to the LAF methodology, WRF annual simulations were initialized by global analyses assuming each analysis as a perturbation of the previous one due to the long lead time of 12 months ahead. Thus, the ensemble consists of 15 members with different initialization dates and different simulation lengths, but with identical end time (September 1st, 2017). In particular, each member was initialized by the Global Forecasting System (GFS) analyses on 00:00 UTC at the period 17-31 August 2016.

USGS DEM database (10x10min) was used for the definition of the domain topography, 16 categories of the FAO (10x10min) for the determination of soil type, and 24 categories of the USGS (10x10min) were used for the vegetation types, which are dynamically updated in the simulation. Real-time global (rtg) analysis data is used for the sea surface temperature (SST) during the initialization stage of each simulation and the monthly climatological NCEP/EMC SST is applied afterwords on a daily update frequency.

How to interpret the charts: In order to assign the estimated temperature anomaly, monthly averaged model outputs were compared against long term monthly means valid for the period of 1971 - 2000, released by the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) and NCAR (Kalnay et al., 1996). The shaded anomalies are considered as statistically significant in 95% confidence level. Spaghetti plots of the temperature at 850 hPa have been also produced as a guidance provision of each member uncertainty.

♦Consider the freely available charts as an under development research product and not as a guaranteed advisor using it for decision making.

 

  • Hoffman, R. N., and Kalnay, E.: Lagged averaged forecasting, an alternative to Monte Carlo forecasting, Tellus, 35A, pp. 100-118, 1983.
  • Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L.,  Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., Reynolds, R., Jenne, R., and Joseph, D.: The NMC/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437-471, 1996.
  • Katsafados P., A. Papadopoulos, G. Varlas, E. Papadopoulou, and E. Mavromatidis: Seasonal predictability of the 2010 Russian heat wave, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 1531-1542, 2014.

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Joomla! provides plenty of flexibility when displaying your Web content. Whether you are using Joomla! for a blog site, news or a Web site for a company, you'll find one or more content styles to showcase your information. You can also change the style of content dynamically depending on your preferences. Joomla! calls how a page is laid out a layout. Use the guide below to understand which layouts are available and how you might use them.

Content

Joomla! makes it extremely easy to add and display content. All content is placed where your mainbody tag in your template is located. There are three main types of layouts available in Joomla! and all of them can be customised via parameters. The display and parameters are set in the Menu Item used to display the content your working on. You create these layouts by creating a Menu Item and choosing how you want the content to display.

Blog Layout

Blog layout will show a listing of all Articles of the selected blog type (Section or Category) in the mainbody position of your template. It will give you the standard title, and Intro of each Article in that particular Category and/or Section. You can customise this layout via the use of the Preferences and Parameters, (See Article Parameters) this is done from the Menu not the Section Manager!

Blog Archive Layout

A Blog Archive layout will give you a similar output of Articles as the normal Blog Display but will add, at the top, two drop down lists for month and year plus a search button to allow Users to search for all Archived Articles from a specific month and year.

List Layout

Table layout will simply give you a tabular list of all the titles in that particular Section or Category. No Intro text will be displayed just the titles. You can set how many titles will be displayed in this table by Parameters. The table layout will also provide a filter Section so that Users can reorder, filter, and set how many titles are listed on a single page (up to 50)

Wrapper

Wrappers allow you to place stand alone applications and Third Party Web sites inside your Joomla! site. The content within a Wrapper appears within the primary content area defined by the "mainbody" tag and allows you to display their content as a part of your own site. A Wrapper will place an IFRAME into the content Section of your Web site and wrap your standard template navigation around it so it appears in the same way an Article would.

Content Parameters

The parameters for each layout type can be found on the right hand side of the editor boxes in the Menu Item configuration screen. The parameters available depend largely on what kind of layout you are configuring.

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